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      4.purpose: to empower the black people to act for themselves, to recognize for their own world, own history, own reality
      It has been a search for a way to connect an oppressed response to society and history and an awareness of individual loneliness.
      In absurd drama, situation is more important than characters and events. The dramatist wants to show people what their situation in their life is. Therefore, he constructs a play which presents a picture of the universal situation. One result of these is that the characters are often comic and humorous.
      a. The most striking feature of his essays is his humour.b. Lamb was especially fond of old writers.c. His essays are intensely personal.d. He was a romanticist.
      With regard to literary criticism, Howells felt that the literary critic should not try to impose arbitrary or subjective evaluations on books but should follow the detached scientist in accurate description, interpretation, and classification.
      Printing press—readership—growth of middle class—trade-education for laypeople-centralization of power-intellectual life-exploration-new impetus and direction of literature.
      No one is ethically free; everything is determined by a complex of internal chemisms and by the forces of social pressure.
      In Victorian period appeared a new literary trend called critical realism. English critical realism of the 19th century flourished in the 40s and in the early 50s. It found its expression in the form of novel.
      Section 1 The 1920s I. Introduction The 1920s is a flowering period of American literature. It is considered ※the second renaissance§ of American literature.
      A morality play is a play enforcing a moral truth or lesson by means of the speech and action of characters which are personified abstractions figures representing vices and virtues, qualities of the human mind, or abstract conceptions in general.
      The novels and plays of Galsworthy give a complete picture of English bourgeois society. A bourgeois himself, Galsworthy nevertheless clearly saw the decline of his class and truthfully portrayed this in his works.
      His plots are well-organized, his characters, either major or minor, are all sharply drawn, and his manipulation of such devices as disguise, mistaken identity and dramatic irony is masterly. Witty dialogues and neat and decent language also make a characteristic of his plays.
      With regard to their writing, the style is fresh, simple and direct; the rhetoric is plain and honest, not without a touch of nobility often traceable to the direct influence of the Bible.